What is Sepsis?

What is Sepsis?

Sepsis is a common diagnosis in the United States and it is estimated that between one and three million Americans are diagnosed each year with this condition. Of these, about 22 percent will die on average.

Sepsis is defined as a very serious medical condition and is the overwhelming response to infection. Sepsis progresses rapidly once it has begun and leads to organ damage. In the more serious cases of sepsis, one or more of the patient’s organs will fail. In the worse cases, the patient will develop septic shock, and when that occurs multiple organs will fail and the patient may find it very difficult to recover.

What Causes Sepsis?

Bacteria is the most common cause of sepsis, but it can also be due to fungus or a virus. When this occurs the patient’s blood culture will oftentimes be positive for the causative organism. However, a negative blood culture does not negate the diagnosis of sepsis. When the blood culture is negative, the physician is using other clinical findings of the patient to make the diagnosis of sepsis. The most common clinical findings that are used by physicians to make this diagnosis are:

  • High fever or low temperature (usually >100.4 F (38 C) or hypothermia <96.8 (36C)
  • Tachycardia (usually HR over 90)
  • Confirmed or suspected localized infection
  • Decreased mental status
  • Tachypnea (usually respiratory rate over 20)
  • Chills due to fall in body temperature
  • Hypotension
  • Elevated white count (more than what is seen with just a localized infection usually less than 4,000 or greater than 12,000)

Keep in mind that there are a plethora of clinical indicators, according if Sepsis-1, Sepsis-2 or Sepsis-3 criteria are used.

The number of sepsis cases in the United States increase each year. This is felt to be due to the aging population, increase in antibiotic resistance, and more people diagnosed with conditions that create a weaker immune system. Anyone of any age can develop sepsis, but it is more prevalent in the older population.

How is Sepsis Coded?

To learn more, download our Sepsis Coding eBook.

Authored by Kim Boy, RHIT, CDIP, CCS, CCS-P

References
nigms.nih.gov/education/pages/factsheet_sepsis.aspx
nytimes.com/2019/02/21/well/live/sepsis-is-a-common-cause-of-hospital-deaths.html
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418298/
healthline.com/health/sepsis#causes
ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting FY 2020
Coding Clinic for ICD-10-CM/PCS, First Quarter 2018: Page 16
Coding Clinic, Second Quarter 2000 Page: 5

The information contained in this coding advice is valid at the time of posting. Viewers are encouraged to research subsequent official guidance in the areas associated with the topic as they can change rapidly.

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